Tuesday, 19 November 2019

Building a Castle: Chapels and Vaulted Ceilings

Every castle had a chapel as the Church was an integral part of daily life. But originally the chapel was set up in a modest chamber. As time went on the chapel became more ornate, sometimes with a crypt to celebrate the lord's ancestors, and became part of his display of status and wealth. From the 11th century onward, the chapels were specially built and often had vaulted ceilings, which were beautiful to look at but very difficult to build.
Oystermouth Castle Chapel
In some castles the chapel was built into the gatehouse or one of the corner towers, in others it was part of the keep. It was usually on the topmost floor so that nothing came between it and heaven. Some castles had two chapels, a larger one for the general castle community and a smaller one for the lord's private use, usually near his quarters.

Saturday, 16 November 2019

Research: Gene Editing

We have talked before about DNA and the advances in DNA mapping, but this time the topic is altering DNA, particularly when it is defective.
Wikipedia says:
Genome editing, or genome engineering, or gene editing, is a type of genetic engineering in which DNA is inserted, deleted, modified or replaced in the genome of a living organism. Unlike early genetic engineering techniques that randomly inserts genetic material into a host genome, genome editing targets the insertions to site specific locations.

Thursday, 14 November 2019

Building a Castle: Flooring

The size of a Great Hall was limited by the length of beams the carpenters could get from available trees, for the roof and the floor. Some great towers were built with in internal crosswall which enabled each side to be roofed and floored independently. Upper floors were supported by pillars in the rooms beneath.
Joist holes Chepstow Castle
Masons and carpenters worked closely together. In ruined castles today you can see the joist sockets in the walls for the supporting beams. The walls were built to the right height and the joists put in place. Then the walls were continued, building them around the joists. In some cases there was also a spine beam running at right angles.

Tuesday, 12 November 2019

Research: Faster-than-light Travel

Most science fiction relies on some kind of faster-than-light travel to enable their stories to take place. If space travel took hundreds of years, we wouldn’t have a story. But physics has proven it’s impossible to travel faster than light.

I don’t understand the science, but according to Cosmos Magazine:
It’s all based on the special theory of relativity. If you want the science, Wikipedia has a long article about it. But regardless of science, we science fiction writers have to have a way for spaceships to get about. The most well known is Star Trek’s warp drive, also found in Isaac Azimov’s I, Robot.

Warp Drive

Saturday, 9 November 2019

Building a Castle: Hearths and Tiles

It may seem a strange combination to write about hearths and tiles in the same post, but once hearths moved away from the centre of the Great Hall to fireplaces against the walls, they needed to be lined with tiles. It was far easier to replace damaged tiles than to rebuild a wall damaged by the heat of the fire.
Fireplace Tattershall Castle showing tiles in the back
Central hearths remained popular for many years, even though they must have filled the hall with smoke. Some master masons incorporated flues into the top of the windows in an attempt to draw out the smoke. It was the way they had always done it, to gather around the central fire.

Saturday, 2 November 2019

Research: Extinction

Extinction is defined as the death of the last living member of a species, but a species may lose its ability to breed and sustain itself a long time before that.
DNA map
A Brief History of the Future gives a date of 2134 as when fifteen percent of all the species on Earth became extinct but the modern estimate is fifty percent will be gone as early as 2050. Most extinctions are caused by man destroying habitats, particularly through large scale deforestation.

Wednesday, 23 October 2019

Building a Castle: The Great Hall

We looked last week at the construction of the roof of the Great Hall, so it's a good point at which to consider the building itself. This was the centre of castle life. In early medieval times the entire household ate and slept together here, and even when other rooms were added to separate the ranks it was still used for business, greeting visitors, and eating.
Great Hall Tamworth Castle
The size and architectural features made a bold statement of the lord's power and status, including the size and number of windows and the decorative embellishments. The windows may be large and with decorative carving, a fire burned in the centre of the room, and the walls may be plastered and decorated with painted designs.